The #develop teamblog
#  Monday, October 01, 2007

SD2-1234, titled "Create common way to handle in-memory representations of files that have multiple views" is the issue tracker entry behind a major refactoring of the IViewContent interface.

The major new feature introduced is that now it is possible to open a file in multiple view contents at the same file (using "Open with"). Both IViewContent instances will edit the same underlying file - when you switch between them, one view content will display the unsaved changes of the other; pressing Ctrl+S in one of them will save both.

Now how is this possible? There must be some data structure shared by both view contents. Since the view contents might not know anything about each other (both could be independently developed AddIns), this data structure must work on the lowest possible level: bytes. It's simply a MemoryStream.

Of course the view contents cannot serialize their content on every change; so a view content may have local changes in a higher-level data structure (text editor buffer, list of entries in resource file, etc). To ensure that such changes are correctly synchronized between view contents showing the same file, I introduced the concept of an active view content. The active view content is the only view content that may have such local changes. Thus, the active view content always has the most recent version of the file, and it is the only view content that is guaranteed to have the most recent version.

To represent files, I created the OpenedFile class. This class knows which view contents have opened it and knows which of them is the active view content. Usually every OpenedFile can have a different active view content; though it is possible for multiple OpenedFiles to have the same active view content if that view content opens multiple files - the refactoring also added support for view contents that are editing multiple files at the same time.

Now a quick overview of the SharpDevelop UI: The SharpDevelop main window is composed of a main menu, a tool bar, and the DockPanel of Weifen Luo's DockPanel Suite. In the dockable area, there are pads, which can be docked in groups at the sides of the SharpDevelop window; or can float somewhere (e.g. on a second monitor).
In the remaining space (not occupied by pads), workbench windows are displayed. The active workbench window can be chosen using the tabs at the top. There can be multiple visible workbench windows if a user drags a tab and docks it to the side of the remaining space.
Finally, each workbench window contains at least one view content. The active view content can be chosen using the tabs at the bottom.

So if you create a new Windows Application and open Program.cs and MainForm.cs, there are two workbench windows titled "Program.cs" and "MainForm.cs", but three view contents - "Program.cs - Source", "MainForm.cs - Source" and "MainForm.cs - Design".

Note that in the new IViewContent architecture, there are no secondary view contents. Now all view contents are equal, and they shouldn't care if they share a workbench window or not. Whether they will share a workbench window or not depends on how the view contents were created - there is still the difference between primary and secondary display bindings, which are responsible for creating view contents.

Now how do changes get from one view content to the other? It's quite simple: Whenever the user activates a view content (by clicking a tab at the top, by clicking a tab at the bottom, or by setting focus into another workbench window after the user docked a window to the side), that view content becomes the active view content for all files it has opened. The old active view content will be asked to save its content to a MemoryStream and the new active view content will be asked to load from that MemoryStream. This way, unsaved changes are transferred from one view content to another.

When the active view content for a file is closed, but there are other open view contents for that file, SharpDevelop will not ask the user to save the file. Instead, it will save the data from the view content being closed into a MemoryStream. After that, the OpenedFile has no active content. Only when one of the other view contents that have opened that file get activated by the user, that view content will load from the MemoryStream and thus will preserve unsaved changes from the closed view content. However, if the user closes all other view contents for that file without making them active (by middle-clicking, or using Window>Close all), SharpDevelop will ask the user if the file should be saved and write the MemoryStream content to disk if required.

The system sounds simple for view contents: they just have to be able to load and save; and it'll just work.

But it isn't that easy. The view contents must be able to load and save reliably at any time.

The user just did something invalid which cannot be saved and then switches to another view of the file? The view content is forced to save. It's not possible say "I don't want to save".

The user loads a .resx file in the text editor, changes something by hand that renders the file invalid XML, opens it in the resource editor, gets an error message, switches back to the text editor. Here the file is saved by the text editor, loaded in the resource editor, the user gets the error and switches back, the resource editor must save and the text editor will load again. The resource editor view content must support loading and saving invalid files unless you want this kind of round-trip to result in loss of user data.

If your view content is editing multiple files, it gets even more complicated: you must support loading and saving individual files reliably at any time, in any order. Sounds fun, right?

Well, if you don't get this right, the user looses data only when editing a file in multiple views simultaneously. In SharpDevelop 2.x, view contents were simply overwriting each other's data; in SharpDevelop 3.0 there's at least a chance that it works if all view contents are implemented correctly.

However, be warned that I didn't have the time to update all view contents in SharpDevelop to make use of the new model. There's still a class AbstractSecondaryViewContent that implements Load and Save so that they run through an underlying "primary" view content, so existing secondary view contents do not have to be completely rewritten (although they still need several changes). The text and resource editors are fine; use them to see how it should work. The forms designer does not yet use the new model, it uses AbstractSecondaryViewContent and still touches the Designer.cs file directly, resulting in bugs like SD2-1175.

But if you are writing a new view content, try to design it so that you can support loading and saving at any time. The AbstractViewContentHandlingLoadErrors class (which both the resource editor and the WPF designer use) can help you handling invalid files.

If your view content edits multiple files, it can get tricky to support loading and saving those independently. But if it is likely that a user will want to edit one that files separately while also using your multi-file view content, you will have to do it. It is possible in SharpDevelop 3.0, so that's an improvement over SharpDevelop 2.x.

By the way: the reason for all this is the settings designer (still not implemented): it edits both a .settings XML file and app.config, and it's very likely that the user has opened the app.config at the same time.

 

Post by Daniel Grunwald (we use the category to mark the author on this blog, but I'll repeat it from now on at the bottom of the post because some feed readers like Google Reader don't show the category)

Categories: Daniel
Monday, October 01, 2007 8:41:07 PM (GMT Daylight Time, UTC+01:00)  #    Comments [0]

 



#  Sunday, September 30, 2007

Visual Studio 2008 uses MSBuild 3.5 which supports multi-targeting: you can use it to compile applications for .NET 2.0, .NET 3.0 and .NET 3.5.

But what happens if you open an MSBuild 2.0 project (Visual Studio 2005 or SharpDevelop 2.x project) in Visual Studio 2008?
Answer: The “Visual Studio Conversion Wizard” will pop up and “convert” the project to MSBuild 3.5. Though it does generate a fancy upgrade report that looks like source files have been converted, all it does for a normal Windows Application is the following:

  • In the .sln file, the solution version is set from 9.00 to 10.00, and the “# Visual Studio 2005” line is replaced with “# Visual Studio 2008”. This causes the Visual Studio loader to run VS 2008 instead of VS 2005 when the .sln is double-clicked.
  • In the .csproj file, the attribute ToolsVersion=”3.5” is inserted. This causes MSBuild to use the C# 3.0 compiler.
  • The property “<OldToolsVersion>2.0</OldToolsVersion>” is inserted, and two properties FileUpgradeFlags and UpgradeBackupLocation are introduced, but not set to a value. This has no effect on compilation.
  • In the .csproj file, the Resources.Designer.cs file got marked as “<DesignTime>True</DesignTime>”, which has no effect on compilation.
  • All files generated by a custom tool (Resources.Designer.cs and Settings.Designer.cs) get regenerated.
  • All other source files remain unchanged.

Note that even though the C# 3.0 compiler is used, the project is still compiled for .NET 2.0. The new C# 3.0 languages features are available, but LINQ cannot be used because it requires referencing System.Core.dll, which comes with the .NET Framework 3.5.
So the converter did only minor changes, but they prevent working with both VS 2005 and VS 2008 on the same project.

Currently, SharpDevelop does not use the multi-targeting model of VS 2008, but continues to use the model of SharpDevelop 2.x: The “Target Framework” setting in the project options allows you to choose the compiler to work with. If you choose C# 2.0 / .NET 2.0, SharpDevelop will not use ToolsVersion=”3.5” on the project, and will create a solution file version 9. Only if you choose the C# 3.0 compiler, it will make the project an MSBuild 3.5 project and mark the solution as version 10.

However, this introduces several problems:
C# 2.0 does not support embedding manifest files in assemblies, but C# 3.5 embeds a default manifest file automatically. Simply changing the target framework changes the manifest behavior.

MSBuild 2.0 does not check whether the assemblies you referenced are available in the target framework you have chosen. SharpDevelop can fix this by doing the check on its own.

The target framework is an option that normally can be dependent on the chosen configuration/platform. However the ToolsVersion attribute in MSBuild cannot be dependent on configuration/platform. If one configuration uses C# 3.0, all configurations will; even if they are explicitly set to C# 2.0.

WPF Applications created in SharpDevelop 2.2 use a different way to support XAML and resource compilation than MSBuild 3.5 uses. Such applications can be edited in SharpDevelop 3.0 and will continue to work even though they are set to C# 2.0 / .NET 2.0 in the options.  Setting these projects to C# 3.0 causes problems that can only be fixed by manually editing the .csproj file.

So what should we do?

  1. Keep it as it is: works for usual projects, has the problems mentioned above
  2. Do it like VS 2008, drop support for the C# 2.0 compiler and force conversion of the project
  3. Disable the “Target framework” combo box until the user runs a conversion tool for that project (which could be a button next to the target framework combo box)

1. “Keep it broken” has the advantage that it’s zero work for us
2. Would be the easy to implement, but means that you cannot use SharpDevelop 3.0 if your co-worker still uses SharpDevelop 2.x or Visual Studio 2005
3. Would be more work than 2, but is the most flexible solution

So do you think the ability to edit VS 2005 projects is worth the effort of implementing 3 instead of 2?

Categories: Daniel
Sunday, September 30, 2007 5:26:53 PM (GMT Daylight Time, UTC+01:00)  #    Comments [9]

 



#  Friday, September 28, 2007

From .NET 1.x times, you might remember .manifest files as the way to enable XP visual styles support in your application.

Application manifests are important in Vista. If your application does not have a manifest, Vista will treat it as legacy application and enable file and registry virtualization. This allows the program to write to its own application directory even if it does not have write access to it - the writes are stored in some hidden folder in the user profile. This redirection can cause a lot of confusions when users try to save files using your program where they don't have write access, and instead of getting an error message the files get saved somewhere else!

Vista also has to determine if programs need administrative rights and should cause a UAC prompt. To do that, it uses a heuristic that looks at the file name and string resources to guess if it should elevate. Using a manifest, you can tell Vista if your program needs elevation and avoid the risk of Vista guessing incorrectly.

Previously, you had to distribute the .manifest file along with the .exe; or you had to embed it in the .exe using a post-build action calling mt.exe.

The C# 3.0 compiler has built-in support for embedding manifests, and actually creates a default manifest that turns virtualization off and tells Vista not to elevate if you don't explicitly tell the compiler not to embed a manifest.

Support for embedding manifests is now available in the SharpDevelop project options:

You can choose to embed the default manifest, not embed any manifest, or to embed a custom manifest.
If you select <Create...>, SharpDevelop will automatically create a file called "app.manifest" in your project. The app.manifest created by SharpDevelop is similar to the default manifest the C# compiler uses; it just adds some comments so you don't have to look up how to control Vista's UAC.

Categories: Daniel
Friday, September 28, 2007 11:08:15 PM (GMT Daylight Time, UTC+01:00)  #    Comments [1]

 



#  Thursday, September 27, 2007

Yesterday I wrote about how I made compiling 30% faster by using multi-threading to let my dual-core CPU work with both cores. A problem was that I had to use serialize build events to send them back to the host process.

MSBuild provides these events to loggers (number of occurrences during the test shown in parenthesis):
MessageRaised   (21156)
ErrorRaised      (0)
WarningRaised   (18)
BuildStarted      (47)
BuildFinished     (47)
ProjectStarted  (449)
ProjectFinished (449)
TargetStarted (2910)
TargetFinished (2910)
TaskStarted (4308)
TaskFinished (4308)
CustomEventRaised (0)

All these events must be send to the SharpDevelop process, where logger AddIns can process them. Each one is serialized separately, and includes information about the full name of the project file being build and some other highly redundant information. Each event is about 1 KB in serialized form. Half of the events occurred in the worker running in the SharpDevelop process, but the other half occurred in the worker that ran in its own process; so half of the events had to be transferred, so we tranferred a total of 18 MB during the 25-second build. Remember the main cost is the serialization (.NET BinaryFormatter), not the data transfer itself.

Obviously, most of these events are not interesting for SharpDevelop, and the best way to improve performance is to ignore uninteresting events in the worker instead of ignoring them in the host.
So which events does SharpDevelop need? Potentially all, since AddIns can add loggers; but if those AddIns tell SharpDevelop which
events are required before the build starts, we can optimize for the common case that all AddIns are only interested in specific events - usually only in errors and warnings. Events that SharpDevelop currently does not use anywhere are MessageRaised, TargetStarted and TargetFinished - all are called quite frequently.
To our benchmark results from yesterday, I added an entry "Less events" where MessageRaised, TargetStarted and TargetFinished are deactivated:

Core Duo Notebook, 1 GB RAM, Vista Home Premium, Aero disabled:
 Rebuild:
   One worker:  35.2, 34.9, 35.2, 35.0, 34.3 : Average 35.1 seconds
   Two workers: 25.6, 23.9, 24.2, 23.5, 23.8 : Average 24.2 seconds
   Less events: 23.7, 23.5, 23.0, 22.4, 21.2 : Average 22.8 seconds

 Build (no changes):
   One worker:  7.4, 7.1, 7.2, 7.8, 7.1 : Average 7.3 seconds
   Two workers: 6.9, 6.8, 6.7, 6.6, 6.2 : Average 6.6 seconds
   Less events: 5.1, 5.0, 6.2, 5.6, 5.1 : Average 5.4 seconds

More than 1 second saved! (see yesterdays' post for details about the benchmark)

Now why does SharpDevelop need TaskStarted and TaskFinished? Take a look at the code:
void OnTaskStarted(object sender, TaskStartedEventArgs e)
{
  activeTaskName = e.TaskName;
  if (MSBuildEngine.CompileTaskNames.Contains(e.TaskName.ToLowerInvariant())) {
    AppendText("${res:MainWindow.CompilerMessages.CompileVerb} " + Path.GetFileNameWithoutExtension(e.ProjectFile));
  }
}

TaskStarted is just there to let the user know that building a project resulted in a recompilation - when doing a Rebuild, SharpDevelop
shows "Compiling ProjectName" for each project, whereas for a Build (no changes), no such lines are shown in the Output view.
But in fact, all consumers of TaskStarted probably look for specific task names. And all consumers of TaskFinished are also listening to TaskStarted and are also only interested in some specific types of tasks.
If we pass the build worker a list of task names we are interested in, it can send us only those events and we don't spend time serializing the tons of events about the tasks <Copy>, <Message> etc.
Together with the "Less events" changes, this decreases the event count from over 36000 to less than 1000.

I implemented this in revision 2696.

Now let's extend our benchmark:
Core Duo Notebook, 1 GB RAM, Vista Home Premium, Aero disabled, two workers, new event handling:
 Rebuild: 20.3, 20.9, 19.9, 20.2, 20.0 : Average 20.3 seconds
 Build (no changes): 4.3, 4.6, 5.0, 4.4, 4.2 : Average 4.5 seconds

That's better than "Less events" because we're sending even less events now, but logger AddIns can tell SharpDevelop that they need to receive additional events, so AddIns did not lose any functionality (but if you install such an AddIn, of course you would lose the performance benefits).
So we're now down from formerly 35.1 seconds (using only one core) to 20.3 seconds - that's 43% faster.
For "Build (no changes)", the reduction of the event count now makes using two workers efficient; from originally 7.3 seconds to 4.5 seconds is a 39% decrease in build time.

Categories: Daniel
Thursday, September 27, 2007 2:31:07 PM (GMT Daylight Time, UTC+01:00)  #    Comments [0]

 



#  Wednesday, September 26, 2007

[Warning: long post. Short version: Building in SharpDevelop goes multi-threaded, scroll down for benchmark results]

SharpDevelop 3.0.0.2694 contains a rewritten build system. It has some new features that might be interesting for AddIn developers, but one new feature is directly useful for users, or more specifically, users with multi-core CPUs.

Here a quick history on build systems in SharpDevelop:
SharpDevelop 2.0 (the first version to use MSBuild), compiled solutions by telling MSBuild to build the .sln file.
SharpDevelop 2.1 and 2.2 compile solutions by telling MSBuild to build the projects individually.

When writing the build engine for SharpDevelop 2.1, I tried to make it multi-threaded so that two projects that are not dependent on each other can be built in parallel. However, this did not work: MSBuild makes use Environment.CurrentDirectory; and if two MSBuild instances run in the same process at the same time, they overwrite the CurrentDirectory and cause the other instance to search files in the wrong location.

Now I solved this problem by moving the build into worker processes. However, this means that all MSBuild events are serialized and remoted to the host process, where SharpDevelop AddIns need to have access to them - e.g. the CodeAnalysis AddIn registers itself as MSBuild logger, waits for the TaskStarted, ErrorRaised, WarningRaised and TaskFinished events and fixes certain FxCop error messages (some FxCop errors are not associated with a line number, but with a class/member name). Other SharpDevelop AddIns might decide that certain MSBuild events should be displayed in some form, e.g. in the output window. The only way to give AddIns access to all MSBuild events like they had before is to serialize all events and send them to the SharpDevelop process. When doing a build where there's relatively few work but lots of events (e.g. "Clean solution"), the worker is sending up to 1 MB/s of serialized events to the host.

This had a noticeable impact on performance, so I've kept the first worker in the SharpDevelop process, and only additional workers get their own process. So if you use only one worker, you won't see any worker process and should get the same build performance as SharpDevelop 2.x.

So even though building a project has multiple parts, of which some are waiting for the disk and others are waiting for the CPU; the overhead of using a worker process will cause the build to get slower. (MSBuild has to check if input files changed, start the compiler; the compiler will load input files, actually compile, write the output assembly; and some other stuff happens in the obj\ directory that you probably don't want to hear about)

But if you have a dual core processor, the CPU overhead doesn't hurt: a little overhead for one core is better than not using that core at all (this is assuming the compiler you use is not multithreaded).

But enough talking, let's get some benchmark results:

I used SharpDevelop 3.0.0.2694 to compile the source code for SharpDevelop 2.2.1:
AMD 3500+ (single core), 2 GB RAM, Vista Ultimate (32 bit), Areo enabled:
 Rebuild:
   One worker: 34.3, 34.1, 34.6, 34.7, 34.3 : Average 34.4 seconds
   Two workers: 39.6, 38.7, 38.1, 37.0, 36.6 : Average 38.0 seconds

 Build (no changes, so it's not compiling, but just checking everything for changes):
   One worker:  8.5,  8.0,  8.3,  8.0,  8.0 : Average  8.2 seconds
   Two workers: 13.4, 13.9, 14.0, 12.8, 13.1 : Average 13.4 seconds

The number of MSBuild events (Target started, Task started, Log Message...) is not much different between Rebuild and Build (no changes), so we get a constant overhead of about 5 seconds for the SharpDevelop solution on my desktop computer with a single core processor.

Here finally is the interesting part: Test results from my dual core notebook:

Core Duo T2300, 1 GB RAM, Vista Home Premium (32 bit), Aero disabled:
 Rebuild:
   One worker: 35.2, 34.9, 35.2, 35.0, 34.3 : Average 35.1 seconds
   Two workers: 25.6, 23.9, 24.2, 23.5, 23.8 : Average 24.2 seconds

 Build (no changes):
   One worker: 7.4, 7.1, 7.2, 7.8, 7.1 : Average 7.3 seconds
   Two workers: 6.9, 6.8, 6.7, 6.6, 6.2 : Average 6.6 seconds

For build (no changes), the overhead plays a big role, but using two workers still made the build a little faster.

But for the real job when there's something to compile, using two workers really rocks: My build is now 30% faster.

SharpDevelop 3.0 allows you to set the number of workers under Tools > Options > Project and solution > Number of projects to build in parallel. The default value for single-core processors is 1, for other processors it's 2. I don't know if going above 2 will have benefits for quad-core users as the overhead (both CPU for sending events to the host and memory because of the additional processes) increases with the number of workers.

Please leave a comment here with your test results - I'm looking for feedback from other multi-core users.

And if you're doing your own benchmark, some notes on how I did my benchmark:
- make sure enough RAM is free so that not only the system does not swap, but Windows has enough room to keep the files you are compiling in memory (this is generally a good idea if you want your system to be fast)
- don't count the first test run as the files are not yet in memory there
- reuse the same SharpDevelop instance for all test runs
- if you leave less than 60 seconds between test runs, SharpDevelop will re-use the worker process, otherwise it is shut down and has to be restarted. I did my tests re-using a single worker process. It might be interesting to see if the overhead of restarting the worker process is worth keeping it longer than 60 seconds.

Categories: Daniel
Wednesday, September 26, 2007 9:05:40 PM (GMT Daylight Time, UTC+01:00)  #    Comments [0]

 



#  Sunday, August 26, 2007

Today I retired the initial Wiki (which only remained online for the book errata; we are now actually at Wiki #3), as well as the initial forum. Both resources [/heyhey/wiki/ and /opensource/sd/forums/] were available read-only anyways. The old URLs now redirect to our new and active installations.

The main reason for the complete removal is security. Both were old, unmaintained ASP solutions.

Categories: Chris
Sunday, August 26, 2007 2:59:49 PM (GMT Daylight Time, UTC+01:00)  #    Comments [0]

 



#  Friday, August 10, 2007

When you double-click a file in SharpDevelop 2.x, it will get opened inside SharpDevelop. AddIns can add display bindings opening for opening file types (e.g. ResourceEditor for .resx files), but this has the effect of disabling the other display bindings for that file type - In SharpDevelop 2.x, you cannot open a .resx file inside the text editor (except if you disable the ResourceEditor AddIn).

In SharpDevelop 3.0, you can now right-click a file in the project browser and select "Open With...". A dialog will show the list of display bindings that can handle the file type. There also is the entry "Use the default Windows application for this file" which will open the file as if you double-clicked it in Windows Explorer.

You can add new programs to the "Open With" list. SharpDevelop will store the list programs for each file extension in the SharpDevelop settings.

Here is a screenshot of the "Open With"/"Add program" dialog:

A very useful feature of the "Open With" dialog is the "Set as Default" button. This will mark an entry as the default program for opening files with the same extension in SharpDevelop. Double-clicks in the project browser will run the chosen default program. ("Set as Default" does not have any effect on double-clicks in Windows Explorer)

For example, SharpDevelop does not have a built-in image viewer/editor, so if you don't want the text editor, which is the fall-back for unknown file types, to open images, you can "Open With" a .png file in your project, enter your favorite image editor and set it as default program for .png.

Categories: Daniel
Friday, August 10, 2007 7:55:23 AM (GMT Daylight Time, UTC+01:00)  #    Comments [0]

 



#  Thursday, August 09, 2007

A small but highly visible bug went unnoticed for the official 2.2.1 release: When creating a new project, ${USER} ${DATE} in the standard header etc. was not replaced with values. Thus we decided to release an 2.2.1a version that contains a fix for this templates-related issue.

Categories: Chris
Thursday, August 09, 2007 7:02:24 AM (GMT Daylight Time, UTC+01:00)  #    Comments [4]

 



#  Wednesday, August 08, 2007

Today, we released SharpDevelop 2.2.1. This is a bug fix release with two updated external software packages: NUnit 2.4.2 and SharpDevelop Reports 2.2.0.235. It is recommend that you upgrade to this point release.

Categories: Chris
Wednesday, August 08, 2007 2:59:50 PM (GMT Daylight Time, UTC+01:00)  #    Comments [0]

 



#  Sunday, June 24, 2007

In revision 2583, I added the XamlBinding and WPF Designer to the setup of SharpDevelop 3.0.

XamlBinding is a language binding that integrates .xaml files into SharpDevelop's code-completion infrastructure.
Here is an example of SharpDevelop showing a tool tip for a property in a .xaml file:

A window in .xaml is a partial class: one part is generated from the .xaml file, the other is the user code. If the xaml file specifies a name for an element, the compiler will generate a field that can be used by the user code. XamlBinding adds code-completion support for such fields:

As you can see in the "Search Results" window, "Find references" now searches for references in .xaml files. The "rename" refactoring will update both the XAML and C# code.

Finally, the WPF designer that I wrote earlier this year is now integrated in SharpDevelop. Here is a screen shot:

The designer replaces SharpDevelop's property grid with its own, WPF-based property grid. This property grid will provide support for editing attached properties and data binding in the future.

Unlike the Windows Forms designer, which is included in the .NET Framework and merely hosted by SharpDevelop (which isn't as easy as it sounds); the WPF designer is written from scratch. Thankfully WPF makes this a lot easier than writing a Windows Forms designer from scratch would be.

The WPF designer is still missing lots of features; I would welcome any help.

You can download preview builds of SharpDevelop 3.0 from our build server.

Categories: Daniel
Sunday, June 24, 2007 4:23:00 PM (GMT Daylight Time, UTC+01:00)  #    Comments [5]

 



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